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2018.10.04

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2019.10.21

尋求庇護者 Asylum Seekers


簡介 Introduction

尋求庇護者是指因遭受酷刑、不人道對待、迫害等而向聯合國難民署申請難民資格的聲請人。香港雖未加入聯合國《難民公約》,但尋求庇護者及難民可來港後,須向入境處申請免被遣返及作出聲請,如獲確立難民資格及身份,即可安排前往第三國定居 (羅倩晴&劉軒, 2016)。截至2017 年9 月,超過 7,244名尋求庇護者及難民仍滯留香港(Lam, 2017),而2015年的財政年度開支超過六億元 (李君萍. 2016)。 尋求庇護者及難民的健康狀況並不理想,傳染病比率偏高,女性需要不同健康檢查及支援,孩童大多營養不足及成長出現遲緩的問題(Burnett & Peel, 2001)。有研究指37%的尋求庇護者有創傷後壓力症(PTSD)的特徵,其焦慮情況會因申請過程顯著轉差 (Silove, Sinnerbrink, Field, Manicavasagar & Steel, 1997)。 香港欠缺友善的難民政策,尋求庇護者滯港長達13年等待審核難民身份,以分發至其他國家重新定居生活 (林可欣, 2017),居住環境惡劣(賴嘉梨&黎綺婷, 2012),加上他們不能在香港合法打工,需領取猶如綜援的津貼過活,又被傳媒領頭標籤化,加深『難民』生活的困難及無視背後的制度問題 (林可欣, 2017)。 Asylum seekers are claimants who apply for refugee status from UNHCR due to torture, inhuman treatment, persecution, etc. Although Hong Kong has not joined the United Nations Refugee Convention, asylum seekers and refugees can apply to the Immigration Department for repatriation and making petitions when they arrive Hong Kong. If their refugee status and identity are confirmed, they can apply for residence in other countries (羅倩晴&劉軒, 2016). As of September 2017, more than 7,244 asylum seekers and refugees remained to be in Hong Kong (Lam, 2017), while spending in fiscal year 2015 exceeded $600 million (李君萍. 2016). The health status of asylum seekers and refugees is unsatisfactory. The prevalence of infectious diseases is high among them. Female asylum seekers require various health checks and support and children are mostly undernourished and sluggish (Burnett & Peel, 2001). Studies have shown that 37% of asylum seekers have characteristics of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and their anxiety is significantly worsened due to the application process (Silove, Sinnerbrink, Field, Manicavasagar & Steel, 1997). Hong Kong lacks a friendly-refugee policy. Asylum seekers are stranded in Hong Kong for 13 years waiting for the review of refugee status in the hope of settling in other countries (林可欣, 2017). Their living environment in Hong Kong is poor (賴嘉梨&黎綺婷, 2012). Since they cannot work legally in Hong Kong, they depend on subsidies and allowance which provide the approximate amount of CSSA. The media often deepen the difficulties of "refugee" life and ignore the structural problems behind (林可欣, 2017).

作者/Author: Carmen K.M. Yau

新聞及政府資訊 News&Government Information

Lam, J. (2017, 2017-12-27, January 01). Asylum seekers in Hong Kong who are trying to make the best out a bad situation. SCMP.
Lam (2017) pointed out that approximately 7,244 asylum seeks were staying in Hong Kong as of September 2017. She covered stories of asylum seekers from Congo and Pakistan who left their homeland and tried to stay active in the completely alien Hong Kong city. The sociology scholar suggested that Hong Kong community should have a better understanding of asylum seekers. She hoped that the government and more organizations could provide support for them before they could resettle in other countries. 
引文
林可欣. (2017). 免遣返審批漫長 尋求庇護者滯港長達13年:無法打工成寄生蟲?. 香港01.
文中表示香港欠缺友善的難民政策,近萬名來港尋求庇護者一方面長期等待入境處和聯合國難民署審核難民身份,以分發至其他國家重新定居生活;另一方面,他們不能在香港合法打工,需領取猶如綜援的津貼過活,又被傳媒領頭標籤化,加深『難民』生活的困難及無視背後的制度問題。
引文
羅倩晴 、 劉軒. (2016, 2016-06-22, January 01). 協會義助滯港難民 「人生最寶貴的時間,都花在無謂的等待」. 獨立媒體.
截至2016 年5 月31日, 超過 11,182 名尋求庇護者及難 民 仍滯 留 香 港 , 向入境處申請免被遣返,並向聯合國難民署申請難民資格以安排前往第三國家。香港教育大學亞洲政策及研究助理教授伍鳳嫦 直指 聲請宗 數 日多而確立率低是 政 府 制度問 題 ,由入境處職 員 的語 言 及認 識 不足,生 活 津 貼 不足、 聲請人的未成年子 女 的教 育 問 題 以至社會的標 籤 化及歧 視 ,令他 們 對生活感到絕 望 。
引文
賴嘉梨 、 黎綺婷. (2012, 2012-04-01, January 01). 尋求庇護者豬欄為家. 大學線.
文中以「豬欄房」火災揭示在港的尋求庇護者 的居 住 情 況, 居所大多以 豬欄改建而成 , 衛生 及安 全 都 欠佳 。 由於尋求庇護 者 的 租金津貼金額有 限 ,而 且 難於找到業主願 意 租借,他 們 大多都被逼租住,即使其 穆斯 林 的信 仰 視豬不潔。他 們 只能依靠機構援助 取 得基本生活所需, 另靠 他人捐助或拾荒而來, 無法工 作生活不穩 。他 們 亦因 文化差 異 易 與本地人產生磨 擦 ,被視為社區治 安 的問 題 。
引文

影視作品 Movie and TV Series

Ai, W. (2017). Human Flow.
This documentary covers the current global refugee crisis and explores the reason behind these refugee flows (e.g., wars, ethnic and other non-ethnic conflicts) as well as repression. Experts and refugees were interviewed to reflect the global response on refuge such as providing accommodation, support and social integration.
引文
Ivin, G. (2018). Safe Harbour.
This drama started by a group of people from Australia having a sailing trip to Indonesia where they met a fishing boat with asylum seekers. This drama provoked a heated debate on asylum seekers. There were a lot provoking thoughts and moral dilemmas, such as the fear of asylum seekers, criticism of stigmatization and social policies, and whether they should take these asylum seekers to shore of Australia before the boat vanishes.
引文
李君萍. (2016). 難民真與假. 鏗鏘集.
香港一直以人道立場協助難民等尋求其他國家的庇護,滯留香港的尋求酷刑聲請免遣返的難民數字逐年上升,2015年的財政年度開支超過六億元。然而,難民身份難辨真偽,有部份聲請人被指濫用機制以延長滯港時間,亦有不少聲請人在港生活貧困,亦希望政府能改善政策及審核機制以打擊假難民,讓真難民得到適切的幫助。
引文
香港電台. (2018). 難民在香港. 視點31.
截止2016年年底, 聯合國難民署指 有6000多萬人成為難民,不少 亦來香港尋求庇護。片中尋求庇護者因與丈夫的宗教衝突而與子女來港尋求庇護近9年,而 入境處 多次以佐證不足駁回她一家的「免遣返聲請」,生活並無出路。  有些難民在香港生兒育女,但其 子女生而無身份及國籍,他們認為政府需正視有關的難民政策以減少難民第二代的人道問題。
引文

學術文章 Academic Papers

Burnett, A. & Peel, M. (2001). Asylum seekers and refugees in Britain: Health needs of asylum seekers and refugees. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 322(7285), 544–547.
Asylum seekers and refugees have very different medical profiles and experience regarding their health condition and experience with healthcare (e.g., higher prevalence of hepatitis A, meningitis, HIV/AIDS as well as tuberculosis which carried out after their screening at arrival). Both infection screening at their arrival and follow-up program faced great challenges to keep them in contact due to language barrier and stigmatization.  Parasitic diseases diabetes, hypertension, and coronary heart disease are commonly found. Headaches and non-specific body pains are common. Some of them have higher risk of substance misuse as a strategy to cope with stress and other distress. Malnutrition and poor hygiene are common among children. For psychological needs, they showed symptoms of depression, anxiety and panic attacks. Most of them have poor sleep which leads to poor memory and concentration. Social isolation and poverty become a stressor for their mental health. Women requires more screening and health promotion programs; in particular, they need more support and protection from physical assault, sexual harassment and rape. Children may require more support from school to help them deal with anxiety and withdrawal. With a better sense of security and education for children and support for parents, they are could have a better support network and minimize the risk of school bullying. 
引文
Phillimore, J. & Goodson, L. (2006). Problem or opportunity? Asylum seekers, refugees, employment and social exclusion in deprived urban areas. Urban Studies, 43(10), 1715–1736.
The authors argued that the dispersal policy for asylum seekers and refugees in England excluded them from mainstream community by arranging them to excluded urban areas with housing. They have high rates of unemployment and underemployment with low salary range and low-skilled occupations despite of their good skills and qualifications. In the hope of facilitating better economic development and social cohesion in these areas, it is necessary to offer job opportunities according to their skills and qualification.
引文
Silove, D. et al. (1997). Anxiety, depression and PTSD in asylum-seekers: Associations with pre-migration trauma and post-migration stressors. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 170(APR), 351–357.
This study investigated traumatic experiences and psychiatric symptoms among asylum seekers staying in a community resource centre in Australia. Their distress was found to be closely related to joblessness, discrimination and poverty. The authors concluded that the procedures of their application would cause a higher level of stress and more psychiatric symptoms in asylum seekers who had traumatic experiences before.
引文

書籍 Books

Hynes, P. (2011). The dispersal and social exclusion of asylum seekers: Between liminality and belonging.
This book is written for students, practitioners and policy-makers to understand the development and current dispersal policy and system for asylum seekers in England in the hope of investigating how the system and policy make an impact in their experience such as social exclusion and lack of sense of belonging. Unless their regufee status could be officially recognized, they faces greaat limitation and challenges.
引文
Masocha, S. (2015). Asylum seekers, social work and racism.
This book challenges racism concepts which are still pervade in social work education and practice. It not only examines how it would influence social work practice, bit it also provides ways to assist social workers to respond proactively to fight against the dominant discourses against asylum seekers.
引文
Puumala, E. (2016). Asylum seekers, sovereignty, and the senses of the international.
This book explores the movements and possible solutions of refugees in terms of relating governance and investigation practices. It covers the struggles between asylum seekers and these practices in different approaches. Since current methods of governing their mobility are unsatisfactory, this book provides suggestions such as application of innovative technologies at boarders and developing new regulations.
引文
Whittaker, D. (2005). Asylum seekers and refugees in the contemporary world.
This book covers case studies, social policies debates as well as refugee movements about refugees in the contemporary world. It also provides an overview of the history of the issues to conceptualize the contemporary refugee climate. It integrates the perspectives of individuals and state by addressing refugee well-being, psychosocial needs, characteristic of refugee cycles in the society as well as policy and support for refugee.
引文
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