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頁面建立日期
2018.10.09

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2019.10.21

數碼化下的勞動轉型 Transformation of Labour in Digitalization


簡介 Introduction

「數碼化」是將數碼科技應用於商業及工作間的社會趨勢,創新及科技已壟斷不少已發展國家的經濟 (Means,2018)。正面來看,數碼化不但使勞力更有效且低成本地生產,讓人們從單一刻板的工作中走出來。它帶領世界進入凡事依靠知識及科技的時代 (Ramos & Ballel, 2009)。另一方面,數碼化改變了商業及勞動的模式及本質,人們不再困在工作間,而是獲得更好的工作及生活平衡,並與不同的電子通訊為伴 (James, 2014)。更多人亦以自僱身份在共享平台工作 (Eichhorst, Hinte, Rinne & Tobsch, 2017)。Ramos & Ballel (2009) 提出勞動市場兩極化,低技術工人被邊緣化,而有些工種甚至已被取代。除了教育系統需增添終身學習以強代勞動市場的適應力外,社會保障亦要顧及更多貧窮戶及低收入人士(Jepsen & Drahokoupil, 2017)。

“Digitalization” is an evolving phenomenon of intensive application of digital technology in business and workplace where innovation and technology dominate the economy in developed countries (Means,2018). From the optimistic perspectives, digitalization enhance efficiency of labour with lower costs as well as releasing people from routine tasks. Digitalization is leading the world to a knowledge and technology driven era (Ramos & Ballel, 2009). On the other hand, digitalization changed the nature and form of business and labour. People are no longer physically chained in workplaces, but are having a better work-life balance with ICT devices (James, 2014). More people are self-employed to work in shared platforms (Eichhorst, Hinte, Rinne & Tobsch, 2017). Ramos & Ballel (2009) pointed out the dualism of labour market where low-skilled workers are being marginalized and some occupations are being replaced. In addition to the reform of education systems for lifelong training for better resilience in labour market, social security systems need to be prepared for those who are facing poverty and having low-paying jobs (Jepsen & Drahokoupil, 2017).

作者/Author: Carmen K.M. Yau

新聞及政府資訊 News&Government Information

The Economist. (2014). The world economy:Wealth without workers, workers without wealth . The Economist.
The Economist (2014) pointed out the significance of current digital revolution which change the nature of productivity as people no longer able to trade their labour for adequate amount of income, especially for those whose job do not require too much knowledge and innovation. It alarmed the countries which rely on manufacturing economy as their work will soon be replaced. Digital revolution also develop new opportunities for online business which no longer have the boundaries of time and place. Policy makers have a huge urge to assist people to adapt such a drastic change and minimize the marginalization of low-skilled workers and less-adapted industries and business sectors. 
引文
James. (2014). 2014 新科技煩惱年:數碼化將帶來社會動盪. 香港 SMB 中小企 IT 資源網誌.
本文撰於 2014 年,預測數碼化為社會帶動的轉變以助讀者裝備未來的挑戰: 1) 數碼工業革命:討論 3D 打印改善生產的模式及知識產權的規限,只要有 3D 的生產檔案便不需要獨有的生產知識及技術; 2) 數碼業務:隨著應用數碼資產及技術而建立的業務,企業能更有效地掌握消費者的統計及偏好,改善企業的銷售策略以至大眾的消費模式; 3)智能機器:這種系統的確提升處理和執行決策的效益,但亦削減人手操作,繼而淘汰部份工種 ;4) 物聯網:可佩戴式設備連接及收集用戶數據,改變大眾的生活模式。
引文
李家濤. (2018). 自動化正加速改變就業機會. 信報.
數碼化及自動化對勞動市場有重大的影響,並掀起所謂的「技能偏重技術變革」(skill-biased technical change SBTC),尤其是某類行業 (如:零售業 ) 的人力需求及薪酬 都會有所影響,就以自助付款的科技及應用程式為例,這種數碼化及自動化不但取代單靠人手做的收銀服務。社會內的勞力市場兩極化,市場對知識及創新技術要求越來越 高,低技巧或學歷者的收入與大學畢業生的差距漸大,成 為社會結構上的不公。文中重申教育政策應盡早作出應對,以減勞工市場兩極化問題 。
引文
顏汶羽. (2017). 勞工市場兩極化 成薪酬加幅差異主因. 香港01.
本文指香港的在職貧窮問題源於勞工市場因數碼化及經濟轉型而兩極化,令低學歷及技術勞工的勞力市場出現供過於求,大大影響他們的工作空間及收入。文中提出不少建議以加強他們的轉行能力 ( 如:「先聘請、後培訓」方案 ) 。另一方面,高技術及學歷者雖不愁工作機會,但職業導向的副學士畢業生仍需加緊增值培訓及銜接課程以追上經濟體系的轉型。
引文

影視作品 Movie and TV Series

Cocorocchia, C. (2016). How the digitization of work affects us all.
This resource summarized how digitalization transformed the flexibility of work in terms of mobility and work space as well as the enhancement of productivity with better work-life balance. The author also argued that such change has more negative implications in long terms in work and life. For example, this could lead to the blurred boundary between work and personal life because people always stay connected with digital productivity and communication tools. It could also create insecurity or work as more people are having short-term jobs with less perspective of lifelong career development.
引文
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2016). Digitisation is shaping the future of work.
This video covers the impact of digitization on the requirement and nature of occupations in the hope of suggesting policy makers to enhance the resilience of people in labour markets so that they can adapt to the changes, face the challenges in the transition of digitization and explore more opportunities and benefits from the shift. At the end of the video, it emphases on how such shift enhance inclusiveness in the labour market. 
引文

學術文章 Academic Papers

Eichhorst, W. et al. (2017). How Big is the Gig? Assessing the Preliminary Evidence on the Effects of Digitalization on the Labor Market. Management Revue, 28(3), 298–318.
Eichhorst, Hinte, Rinne & Tobsch (2017) evaluated the opportunities and impact in developed countries like Germany, particularly on labour market and economy. The transformation not only change the nature and form of occupations and employment, more people are self-employed in the shared platform. The authors highlighted these challenges require adaptation on social protection such as insurance systems.
引文
Jepsen, M. & Drahokoupil, J. (2017). The digital economy and its implications for labour. 2. The consequences of digitalisation for the labour market. Transfer: European Review of Labour and Research, 23(3), 249–252.
This editorial paper covers the second issue of Transfer double issues which broaden the discussion on the significance of platform economy. Such economy changes the ordinary models of business as well as productivity as well as the demand of labour in terms of requirements on skills and knowledge, terms and nature of contracts and income. Considering job polarization creating wider wage inequality of low-skilled jobs or routine work, social security and education are essential for developed economies. This issue also urged the trade union and stakeholders to face the dilemma of digital economy on consumption as traditional occupation and value of labour are under pressure. The idea of “unconditional basic income” is suggested as a way of valuing human labour as well as a “macroeconomic stabilizer” instead of overwhelming social protection systems. The issue also covers the impact of digitalization on genders such as career developments, unequal workplace and platform as well as social partnership.
引文
Ramos, J. & Ballell, P. (2009). Globalisation, new technologies (ICTs) and dual labour markets: the case of Europe. Journal of Information, Communication & Ethics in Society, 7(4), 258–279.
The authors pointed out that the rapid development of information and communication technology (ICT) promotes a more knowledge-oriented world where information and innovation rule the direction of the society. On the other hand, such rapid development led to another structural inequality such as unfair trade, unemployment of low-skilled workers and poverty among different places like India and Thailand. It is important to adjust our welfare system and economic policy to meet the shift of globalization and digitalization. For example, relocation of jobs, better job security, protected wages to narrow the salary gap as well as enhancement of computer and ICT literacy in the hope of minimizing the dualisation of the market of human resources.
引文

書籍 Books

Bührer, C. & Hagist, C. (2017). The effect of digitalization on the labor market. The Palgrave handbook of managing continuous business transformation.
The authors pointed out that digitalization multiplies the productivity and promising financial growth, but it also leads to significant structural shifts in labour markets as some occupations are being replaced. The relationship between workers and technology has a major shift from the nature of assisting people to work effectively to replacing people in some occupation such as typewriters. Digitalization changes the division of labour for better efficiency and effectiveness while the current labour and workers require support to catch up the evolving technology and drastic changes in economy. On the other hand, education system for new generations is urged to reform to build adequate labour for the technology-driven economy.
引文
Harteis, C. (2018). The Impact of Digitalization in the Workplace : An Educational View.
This book covers the impact of digitalization at workplace in the perspectives in social sciences, education and other relevant disciplines. Besides of the structural change and challenges faced by individuals and stakeholders of the communities, such trend also provides opportunities for others who can fit in with different nature and requirement of work. This book provides insights specifically on education and further development for adults as the backbone of human resource in the society. 
引文
Means, A. J. (2018). Learning to save the future : Rethinking education and work in an era of digital capitalism.
This book argues the risks and threats behind prosperity and high-paying jobs led by the emerging technology revolution in 21st century. Although high education of general public is growing rapidly, artificial intelligence and other information and communication technology lead a drastic shift in the labour market in terms of the nature and form of labour and capital. This book covers perspectives of education, economy, labour. Innovation, power in the hope of getting a full picture of how human capability of innovation and communication can be valued as productivity and contribution to the society in the new digital era. 
引文

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