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數碼化下的勞動轉型 Transformation of Labour in Digitalization

簡介 Introduction

「數碼化」是將數碼科技應用於商業及工作間的社會趨勢,創新及科技已壟斷不少已發展國家的經濟 (Means,2018)。正面來看,數碼化不但使勞力更有效且低成本地生產,讓人們從單一刻板的工作中走出來。它帶領世界進入凡事依靠知識及科技的時代 (Ramos & Ballel, 2009)。另一方面,數碼化改變了商業及勞動的模式及本質,人們不再困在工作間,而是獲得更好的工作及生活平衡,並與不同的電子通訊為伴 (James, 2014)。更多人亦以自僱身份在共享平台工作 (Eichhorst, Hinte, Rinne & Tobsch, 2017)。Ramos & Ballel (2009) 提出勞動市場兩極化,低技術工人被邊緣化,而有些工種甚至已被取代。除了教育系統需增添終身學習以強代勞動市場的適應力外,社會保障亦要顧及更多貧窮戶及低收入人士(Jepsen & Drahokoupil, 2017)。

“Digitalization” is an evolving phenomenon of intensive application of digital technology in business and workplace where innovation and technology dominate the economy in developed countries (Means,2018). From the optimistic perspectives, digitalization enhance efficiency of labour with lower costs as well as releasing people from routine tasks. Digitalization is leading the world to a knowledge and technology driven era (Ramos & Ballel, 2009). On the other hand, digitalization changed the nature and form of business and labour. People are no longer physically chained in workplaces, but are having a better work-life balance with ICT devices (James, 2014). More people are self-employed to work in shared platforms (Eichhorst, Hinte, Rinne & Tobsch, 2017). Ramos & Ballel (2009) pointed out the dualism of labour market where low-skilled workers are being marginalized and some occupations are being replaced. In addition to the reform of education systems for lifelong training for better resilience in labour market, social security systems need to be prepared for those who are facing poverty and having low-paying jobs (Jepsen & Drahokoupil, 2017).

作者/Author: Carmen K.M. Yau


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