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催眠治療 Hypnotherapy

簡介 Introduction

催眠治療可被視為一種心理介入方法或一種替代治療,已有很長歷史。催眠治療可被用來處理各種心理或行為問題(例如:焦慮、體重控制、戒煙、失眠、心理創傷、痛症處理、壓力問題)。催眠治療是在催眠狀態下進行,這是一種意識狀態,催眠狀態下人會變得注意力更集中,而且對暗示更敏感。一般認為催眠治療可以在潛意識層面發揮作用,故可使介入成效更有力。儘管關於催眠之爭議猶在,目前已有一些證據,支持用催眠治療作某些目的。譬如,Richardson et al. (2007) 發現催眠治療能有效改善癌症兒童接受代療後出現的噁心和嘔吐;Hansen (2016) 也表明,催眠技巧是安全的,並在身心醫學上有其作用;另一回顧研究也認為催眠治療可以用來緩解創傷後症狀 (Rotaru & Rusu, 2016)。雖然催眠長久以來一直被用於臨床用途,在過去幾十年來也有很多精神健康工作者提到催眠何其有用(e.g., Milton Erickson, Josef Breuer, Jeffrey Zeig, Onno Van der Hart, Rickard Kluft),實證證據仍然有限,其有效性仍需要更進一步的科學檢驗。

Hypnotherapy can be seen as a type of psychological interventions or an alternative medicine with a long history. Hypnotherapy may be used to treat a variety of psychological or behavioral problems (e.g., anxiety, weight management, quitting smoking, insomnia, psychological trauma, pain management, stress). Hypnotherapy is conducted under the state of hypnosis, which is a state of consciousness in which a person is more focused and sensitive to suggestions. It is believed that hypnotherapy can have effects in the unconscious level so that the interventions can be more powerful. While debates regarding hypnotherapy still exist, there are some evidences for the use of hypnotherapy for various purposes. For example, Richardson et al. (2007) found that hypnotherapy is effective for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in children with cancer; Häuser, Hagl, Schmierer, and Hansen (2016) showed that hypnotic techniques are safe and useful in somatic medicine; another review study also suggests that hypnotherapy can be used to alleviate posttraumatic symptoms (Rotaru & Rusu, 2016). Although hypnosis has long been used for clinical purposes and its usefulness has been reported by many mental health practitioners in the past decades (e.g., Milton Erickson, Josef Breuer, Jeffrey Zeig, Onno Van der Hart, Rickard Kluft), empirical evidence is still limited and further scientific evaluation on its effectiveness is necessary.

作者/Author: Hong Wang Fung


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