樂齡 (Active Ageing 或 Healthy Ageing) 由世界衞生組織所提出，指這是是「一個發展及維持長者的生活技能及身心健康的過程」(WHO, n.d.)。政府統計處預計2021年65歲或以上的人士約有1,322,500人，佔總人口的15.7%，即每六名香港人中，約有一人是65歲或以上的長者 (Ad Hoc Committee on Healthy Ageing, 2001)。成功老齡化三大要素包括1) 健康管理及護理: 鼓勵長者健康管理及生活模式的個人責任，強化長者醫療及護理的社會支援；2) 建立長者友善環境：為長者族群作適切的社區規劃、交通及社區建設以助他們繼續發揮現有的功能；3) 積極參與生活：提升長者在家庭、鄰舍及社區層面能積極參與 (Ad Hoc Committee on Healthy Ageing, 2001)。
Healthy ageing (or active ageing) is introduced by WHO as “the process of development and maintaining the functional ability that enables well-being in older age” (WHO, n.d.). By 2021, it is estimated by Census and Statistics Department that there will be 1,322,500 senior citizen over aged 65 and over, accounting for 15.7% of the total population in Hong Kong. In order words, about 1 out of six people will be aged 65 or over (Ad Hoc Committee on Healthy Ageing, 2001). In the view of ageing as a healthy process with needs and potentials, Ad Hoc Committee on Healthy Aging (2001) recommended three main focuses include: 1) Health Management and Care: encourage personal responsibility on health management and healthy lifestyle. Also, enhance better community-based health and nursing services; 2) Ageing-in-place: design for barrier-free community, accessible transportation and caring support network to facilitate senior citizens to maintain their daily functioning; 3) Active Participation in Life: facilitate senior citizens to participate actively in family, neighborhood and community life.
Pavlova, M. K. & Silbereisen, R. K. (2016). Perceived Expectations for Active Aging, Formal Productive Roles, and Psychological Adjustment Among the Young-Old. Research on Aging, 38(1), 26–50.
This paper investigate the perception of senior individuals on the social expectation of active ageing. For example, physical fitness to work or volunteer for the benefit of society. Better self-concept not only raise better affect, but also decrease depressive symptoms. 引文
Stenner, P. et al. (2011). Older people and “active ageing”: Subjective aspects of ageing actively. Journal of Health Psychology, 16(3), 467–477.
This research interviewed 42 senior adults aged 72 years and over to share their view on active aging in physical, cognitive, psychological and social perspectives and its interactions. 引文
Walker, A. (2002). A strategy for active ageing. International Social Security Review, 55(1), 121–139.
This article examine how industrialized societies respond to the aging populations by reviewing policy on five main policy domain: employment, pension, retirement, health and citizenship. Comprehensive approach on active ageing is suggested to establish policy which make sense in economic and moral perspectives. 引文
Walker, A. & Maltby, T. (2012). Active ageing: A strategic policy solution to demographic ageing in the European Union. International Journal of Social Welfare, 21(S1), S117–S130.
This article suggests strategic social and economic policy to face the demographic aging in Europe. The emerging concept of active ageing 引文
Ad Hoc Committee on Healthy Ageing. (2001). Report on Healthy Ageing. Hong Kong: Elderly Commission.
This report is prepared by the Ad Hoc Committee on Health Aging from Elderly Commission to fomular the initiatives and strategies on healthy aging in Hong Kong. It covers the characteristics of againg population in Hong Kong, concepts of health ageing, recommendation on community services and programs as well as community actions to mobililize and promote positive healthy ageing. 引文
World Health Organization . (2015). World report on ageing and health. Geneva: World Health Organization.
This report addresses the challenges of aging trend woldwide and recommends policies and services to meet the needs and potential of aging population. 引文
Timonen, V. (2016). Beyond successful and active ageing: a theory of model ageing. UK: Policy Press.
This article criticizes the concept of “active ageing” create further inequality of the elderly in the contemporary society. The author suggested a new theory to conceptualize these concepts to see how ageing is being socially constructed. 引文
Walker, A. & Aspalter, C. (2015). Active Ageing in Asia. London: Routledge.
This book broadens the concept of active ageing and examines the development, outcome and challenges of implementations to face the rapid growth of senior citizens in East Asian societies. By providing case studies in these cities, the concepts and theories are being applied to review the practical implications on social policies and social changes. 引文
Zaidi, A. et al. (2018). Building Evidence for Active Ageing Policies : Active Ageing Index and its Potential. Singapore: Springer Singapore.
This book builds knowledge and evaluation on appropriate policy making to facilitate healthy active ageing, This book suggests an "active ageing index" to provide information and resources in different discipline as well as policy makers. 引文