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頁面建立日期
2018.11.07

頁面更新日期
2019.10.21

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#多元出路 #就業

零散工 Casual Workers


簡介 Introduction

零散工通常是指一些工時較短、不穩定或零碎的工種,例如派傳單員、超市食品推廣員和派報紙員等等 (水寶怡, 2017)。零散工亦可泛指因未能符合《僱傭條例》「連續性合約」的條件,(俗稱「418」,即僱員連續工作4 星期或以上,而每星期最少 18 小時) 的工作。根據統計處資料,2009年近15萬人從事部零散工 (包括:兼職工、臨時工、短期合約工等),佔總勞動人口的5% (關注零散工權益聯席, 2014)。礙於零散工不符合《僱傭條例》中「418」的條件,無法享有與長約工的勞工權益,例如:有薪假期及病假、有薪產假、長期服務金等。零散工以基層婦女為多,男女就業的人口及收入差距加劇,她們沒有任何保障又受剝削 (曾迦慧, 2018)。政府應就勞動市場的趨勢,參考亞洲其他地區的對策,改善勞工及婦女的政策,例如以按工時比例計算僱員保障、支援婦女可短暫離開家庭崗位去投入勞工市場等 (評論編輯室, 2018)。

Casual worker is a term usually used to describe irregular, flexible, non-permanent work such as street promotors distributing flyers, promotors in supermarket as well as people sending newspaper (水寶怡, 2017). Casual worker could be defined as work contracts that does not meet the requirement of “continuous contract of employment” under The Employment Ordinance (commonly known as "418", i.e., employees who work for 4 weeks or more and at least 18 hours per week). According to the Census and Statistics Department, nearly 150,000 people worked as casual workers (e.g. temporary jobs, short-term contracts etc.) in 2009, accounting for 5% of the total labour force (關注零散工權益聯席, 2014). Since they do not meet the “418” requirement under The Employment Ordinance, casual workers do not have equal rights and benefits as permanent workers including paid leave, sick leave, maternity leave and long service payment etc. The majority of casual workers are women from grass-root community. Such inequality widens the income gap between genders and leads to further job insecurity and exploitation (曾迦慧, 2018). The Government should, in the view of the current trend in labour market, take the measures from neigbour Asian cities to reform the social policy on labour and women including the calculation of staff benefits in proportion of their working hours as well as providing more support for women to turn their family roles to work flexibly (評論編輯室, 2018).

作者/Author: Carmen K.M. Yau

新聞及政府資訊 News&Government Information

曾迦慧. (2018, 2018-04-30, January 01). 法例須保障零散工的勞動權益. 立場新聞. 香港.
零散工以基層婦女為多,男女就業的人口及收入差距加劇,她們沒有任何保障又受剝削,主要原因是條例過時、家庭崗位及學歷限制。文中建議政府參考亞洲其他地區重新檢視政策,以按工時比例計算僱員保障,支援婦女可短暫離開家庭崗位去投入勞工市場。
引文
關注零散工權益聯席. (2014, 2014-03-13, January 01). 零散工權益狀況調查報告:返工零保障 四成受訪零散工工時與全職工無異. 獨立媒體. 香港.
本文交代零散工權益狀況調查報告的結果,指出零散工無法享有大部份勞工權益,97.5%的400名受訪者為零散工,分佈於不同行業,其工作日數與工時與全職工沒大差異,職場對中年婦女剝削更甚。文中促訂立「兼職法」及制訂政策需考慮零散工現況。
引文
評論編輯室. (2018, 2018-08-07, December 23). 零散工欠保障 條例過時 政府須修法加強權益. 香港01. 香港.
本文指出零散工對自身權益的認識不足,法例對零散工的福利及保障亦很有限,就以《僱傭條例》為例,不符合「連續性合約」的零散工則只能得最基本保障,例如工資的支付、扣薪的限制及法定假日的給予等。
引文
水寶怡. (2017, 2017-05-25, January 01). 炒散都係工人: 零散工及推廣員工. 草根.行動.媒體. 香港.
本文訪問香港婦女勞工協會幹事胡美蓮,了解基層女性大多只能找到零散工的情況。僱主透過編更的方法,令零散工不符合4118的規定。文中詳述超市推廣員的苦況,除不提供任何工作必須的設備及工具外,還要付按金給中介公司以保障自己的非正式員工的工作機會,並且推卸推廣員受性騷擾的問題。
引文

影視作品 Movie and TV Series

9Honey. (2018). Know your rights as a casual worker. Australia: nine.com.au.
Casual workers takes approximately 40% of the labour market in Australia. This clip shares how casual worker can calculate your rate despite of the number of working hours. Also, it points out the benefits of casual work such as flexibility, less requirement of technique and skills.
引文
郭臻. (2012). 流放地. 生活逼人. 香港: 香港電台.
影片講述一位香港長大的印度裔青年的散工生涯,因膚色及草根背景,他只能靠不同的散工過活,不但不為失誤賠償,要四處追薪借錢,親友疏離之餘,生活總是四處奔馳。
引文
王祿霞. (2011). 國際手提電話品牌港澳區掌舵人 飢寒交迫露宿街頭. 窮富翁大作戰II. 香港: 香港電台.
本集邀請林國誠體驗五日四夜做散工維生及露宿生活。
引文

學術文章 Academic Papers

De Cuyper, N. & De Witte, H. (2007). Job insecurity in temporary versus permanent workers: Associations with attitudes, well-being, and behaviour. Work & Stress, 21(1), 65–84.
Comparing temporary workers to permanent workers, job insecurity have negative association with psychological outcomes such as job and life satisfaction, their sense of work performance as well as their commitment to the organization.
引文
Arne L. Kalleberg. (2000). Nonstandard Employment Relations: Part-time, Temporary and Contract Work. Annual Review of Sociology, 26(1), 341–365.
This article studies different forms of non-standard employment relationship in multi-discipline perspectives such as sociology, economic and psychology to investigate the factors contribute to emerging of these employment relationships.
引文
Smith, R. (2008). Legal Protections and Advocacy for Contingent or “Casual” Workers in the United States: A Case Study in Day Labor. Social Indicators Research, 88(1), 197–213.
Staffing strategies such as contingent and casual work is now longer for low-skilled workers but also applied in different occupation and industry. For these casual workers, they are being marginalized for labour protection and bargaining power. This article studies different strategies and social movements to develop leadership and advocacy to enhance their rights and protection.
引文
Tremblay, D. (2008). From Casual Work to Economic Security; The Paradoxical Case of Self-Employment. Social Indicators Research, 88(1), 115–130.
This paper aims to introduce and define concepts of casual work and its characteristics of job and economic insecurity. Social policy (e.g. parental leaves) is being reviewed to see how it makes an impact to face the transformation in labour market.
引文
Zeytinoglu, I. et al. (2004). Part-Time and Casual Work in Retail Trade : Stress and other Factors Affecting the Workplace. Relations Industrielles, 59(3), 516–544.
This article examines how workshop relationships make an impact on occupation stress and their workplace. Part-time and casual workers are under great pressure from juggling jobs to jobs, facing high turnover in workplace as well as more gender-related issues. This article recommends better gender equality and work-life balance and positive workplace.
引文

書籍 Books

Burgess, J. & Connell, J. (2004). International perspectives on temporary work. London: Routledge.
For the past few decades, temporary work in labor market raised rapidly as employers can reduce their cost with short term contracts. On the other hand, workers has less power to protect their rights should they are employed as temporary jobs.
引文
Torben Elgaard Jensen & Ann Westenholz. (2004). Identity in the Age of the New Economy Life in Temporary and Scattered Work Practices.
This book examines the concepts of new economy which emphasis on knowledge and network. The contemporary forms of employment create drastic change on individual’s identity and their subjectivity. As consequences of economic, social and cultural shift, the new economy becomes more post-modern with risks.
引文
樂施會. (2017). 低收入零散工概況調查報告. 香港: 樂施會.
香港的零散工於2016年達148,900人,當中59.5%為女性,可見家庭崗位令兩性的收入差距不公,而且零散工往往被僱主剝削應有的福利和保障。
引文
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