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頁面建立日期
2018.11.07

頁面更新日期
2019.10.21

關鍵字﹕
#就業 #貧窮

在職貧窮 Working Poor


簡介 Introduction

在職貧窮是全球社會根深蒂固的貧窮問題,需要政府政策改革、社會制度改革和解決性別不平等的問題, 而不是單單靠提供社會福利(Munger, 2007)。香港的貧窮線訂於是家庭收入中位數的一半,以在 2015年的貧窮線為例,一人家庭每月收入低於3800元, 二人家庭每月港幣8800元則被界定為貧窮 (Carvalho, 2017)。除了政策改革和制定最低工資法外,組織工會有助集合在職貧困者的討價能力,與僱主談判以取得合理的工資及保障 (Brady, Baker & Finnigan, 2013)。為了解決這些家庭的兒童貧困問題,政府應接納建議採取行動,加強家庭友善的政策, 推行教育政策改革以及兒童福利政策 (Rainwater & Smeeding, 2005; 香港社會聯會, 2013).

Working poor is a global poverty issues deeply rooted in our society that requires reforms on government policy, social systems and gender inequality instead of simply providing social welfare (Munger, 2007). The poverty line in Hong Kong is half of the median household income. In 2015, one-person family’s monthly income below $3,800 while two-person family’s monthly income below HK$8,800 are considered to be poor (Carvalho, 2017). Besides of policy reform and setting up minimum wage policy, unionization helps to gather the bargaining power of working poor of specific occupations to negotiate reasonable wage with employers as protection of employees (Brady, Baker & Finnigan, 2013). In the hope of solving child poverty from these families, the government is suggested to take actions to enhance family-friendly policy, reform of education policy as well as children welfare policy (Rainwater & Smeeding, 2005; 香港社會聯會, 2013).

作者/Author: Carmen K.M. Yau

新聞及政府資訊 News&Government Information

Carvalho, R. (2017, 2017-10-12, January 01). Explain This: what does it mean to be poor in Hong Kong, and how many people live in poverty? SCMP. Hong Kong.
The poverty rate of Hong kong stands up to approximately 19.7% implying that the gap between the rich and the poor. These families in poverty face great difficulties in coping with basic expenditures such as rising rents. They are trapped in the vicious cycle as most of them work as casual workers with limited protection and welfare from their employers.
引文
何喜華. (2018, 2018-02-13, December 23). 【扶貧.來稿】低津報喜不報憂 願「零」在職貧窮不是夢. 香港01. 香港.
政府於2017年公佈《2016年香港貧窮情況報告》表示低收入在職家庭津貼計劃令近4,000人脫貧,有兒童及單親貧窮住戶的成效顯著,但兒童貧窮問題依然嚴重,而近七成半申請家庭未能脫貧。主要因素包括領取後仍未離開貧窮線,申請數字仍偏低、資料不足而未能完成申請手續。 文中建設政府推行「負稅率」讓貧窮家庭不用經繁複手續成為受助家庭以脫離貧窮線。
引文
香港社會聯會. (2013). 在職貧窮. 扶貧資訊網. 香港: 香港社會聯會.
在職貧窮以家庭收入計算,其家庭每月收入少於或等於全港相同人數家庭收入的中位數一半(即貧窮線),則屬在職貧窮的家庭,一人家庭的貧窮線為$3,275, 二人家庭為例7,100。2007年的在職貧窮住戶上升至超過20萬戶,在職貧窮家庭較多有同住的兒童及長者需要照顧,而就業者多以低技術及工人為多,以零售批發及飲食服務等行業為多。政策建議包括檢討最低工資水平、支援收收入家庭的開支、提供長者及兒童福利、提供家庭照顧者津貼。
引文
樂施會. (2017, 2017-03-02). 香港貧窮問題的民意調查報告. 香港: 樂施會.
調查有46.9%受訪者表示香港的貧窮問題嚴重,關注議題包括長者貧窮問、跨代貧窮及在職貧窮問題。香港的貧窮問題以缺乏完善的退休保障制度為由。
引文

影視作品 Movie and TV Series

鄺翠娟. (2013). 志不窮. 鏗鏘集. 香港: 香港電台.
本集報導來自低收入家庭的兒童約有27萬,即四個兒童有一個生活在貧窮線上。政府為針對跨代貧窮問題,推行友師同行的儲蓄計劃,建立金錢、理財同個人發展為目標,鼓勵兒童儲蓄。本集探討有關成效。
引文
李賢哲. (2010). 見窮不見貧. 鏗鏘集. 香港: 香港電台.
本集探討香港貧富懸殊差距嚴重,年輕人所面對的困難更嚴重,學者及基層服務機構都認為這是政治體制所引申的問題,政府不能依賴市場調節。
引文
唐敏明. (2012). 點解會貧窮. 香港: 香港電台.
八集紀錄片探討全球各地的貧窮狀況,成因包括政治制度、社會制度、國際形勢、性別歧視等等,脫貧方法亦不能單靠發放津貼。
引文

學術文章 Academic Papers

Brady, D. et al. (2013). When Unionization Disappears:State-Level Unionization and Working Poverty in the United States. American Sociological Review, 78(5), 872–896.
This paper examines the impact of institution, policies and unionization on the working poor. Unionization have significant influence on reducing working poverty and do not discourage employment.
引文
Burkhauser, R. V. & Finegan, T. A. (1989). The minimum wage and the poor: The end of a relationship. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 8(1), 53–71.
This article identifies the transformation of working poor as an outcome of minimum-wage legislation by reviewing household income of the working poor for the past few decades. Authors questioned if minimum wage is a good social policy despite the working poor are having much higher income than those under poverty line.
引文
Lohmann, H. (2009). Welfare States, Labour Market Institutions and the Working Poor: A Comparative Analysis of 20 European Countries. European Sociological Review, 25(4), 489–504.
This article combines a micro-macro models to review the incidence of working poverty and the outcome of social transfer in European countries. Measures of social welfare, social security system and labour market have close connection to working poverty.
引文
Smith, A. et al. (2008). The Emergence of a Working Poor: Labour Markets, Neoliberalisation and Diverse Economies in Post-Socialist Cities. Antipode, 40(2), 283–311.
This paper investigate how the working poor and their family avoid being excluded in the labour market as they face different drawbacks with employment insecurity, rapid changes of economic and labour practice. For the contemporary society, class are being remade as well as the meaning of work and livelihoods.
引文

書籍 Books

Andersson, F. et al. (2006). Moving up or moving on: Who advances in the low-wage labor market?. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
This book covers discuss the interactions between low earners and their employers over 9 years to investigate the characteristics of successful career outcomes in terms of “moving on” to switch their employers in different firms or “moving up” for upper level at the same firm.
引文
Munger, F. (2007). Laboring Below The Line: The New Ethnography of Poverty, Low-Wage Work, and Survival in the Global Economy. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
This book bridges a group of people including working poor, recipients of social welfare and people being underpaid to a wide range of qualitative scholars from different discipline from enthnography, history and sociology to overview how poverty is being deeply rooted and affecting our society.
引文
Rainwater, L. & Smeeding, T. (2005). Poor kids in a rich country: America’s children in comparative perspective. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
This book focus on children from working poor families in United States and other developed countries. Child poverty is contributed by different social policies and strategies of earnings transfer by the government such as setting up children welfare and benefits, family-friendly policies, reform of education policy.
引文

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