男性和女性在很多方面往往也受到不相等的對待（e.g., 權力、資源分配、責任）。這個社會現象一般稱為性別不平等，在現代社會裡這仍然是一個重要的議題。性別不平等的問題可見於很多已發展國家和發展中國家。性別平等不僅是一個道德上的要求。性別不平等跟很多社會問題也有密切關係（e.g., 兒童受虐和疏忽照顧、暴力、精神健康問題、兒童死亡）(e.g., Brinda, Rajkumar, & Enemark, 2015; Caprioli, 2005; Kira et al., 2015; Klevens & Ports, 2017)。除此之外，研究顯示很多方面的性別不平等（e.g., 就業和教育）可以為經濟增長帶來顯著的影響 (Klasen & Lamanna, 2009)。因此，一些學者已指出，「教育和健康方面的性別差異並不是一個有效益的經濟選擇」(Dollar & Gatti, 1999, p. 1)。為了對抗和扭轉性別不平等，無論在個人層面抑或是社會層面，我們也需要努力。
Men and women are usually treated unequally in many aspects (e.g., power, resource distribution, responsibilities). This social phenomenon is geneally known as gender inequality, which is still an important issue in the modern society. The problem of gender inequality can be observed in many developed and developing countries. Gender equality is not just a moral imperative. Gender inequality is also associated with a number of social problems (e.g., child abuse and neglect, violence, mental health problems, child mortality) (e.g., Brinda, Rajkumar, & Enemark, 2015; Caprioli, 2005; Kira et al., 2015; Klevens & Ports, 2017). In addition, research shows that gender inequality in many aspects (e.g., employment and education) could have considerable impacts on economic growth as well (Klasen & Lamanna, 2009). Therefore, some scholars has pointed out that “gender differentials in education and health are not an efficient economic choice” (Dollar & Gatti, 1999, p. 1). In order to combate and reverse gender inequality, efforts should be made in both individual level and social level.