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2019.04.24

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2020.04.23

香港人 Hongkongers


簡介 Introduction

中國滿清政府在1842年將香港島割讓給大英帝國成為殖民地,直到1997年,英國將香港主權移交中華人民共和國。在這百多年殖民地歷史中,人群從中國大陸及其他地區移居香港,因此“香港人”並不直接指涉特定族裔或國籍。然而,回歸後,華裔居民逐漸佔大多數,根據香港2016年的人口普查,92% 人口是華裔,其中31% 出生於中國大陸、臺灣或澳門。在5萬非華裔人口中,最大的族群是菲律賓人、印尼人和白人,分別占非華裔人口的31.5、26.2% 和10.0%,其他亞洲族群包括印度人、巴基斯坦人和尼泊爾人 (HKSAR, 2017)。

“香港人”一詞 在中文語境中使用多年,但英語專有名詞 “Hongkonger”則是在2014年才被《牛津英語詞典》正式收錄 (South China Morning Post, 2014)。“香港人”本身並不是法定用語,在政府文件中,通常被稱作“香港居民”。香港居民包括不同類型,例如:i) 非永久香港居民是指持有香港身份證但沒居留權的人士,ii) 香港永久居民是持有香港永久居民身份證及居留權的人士,iii) 大部份港人持有中國護照及香港永久居民身份證,iv) 也有部份港人持有香港永久居民身份證但並非持有中國護照 (HKSAR, 2019) 。

自1997年回歸20多年後,香港人的國族身份認同仍然是個未解決的問題。一項在2017年發佈的調查顯示,香港居民對“香港人”這身份的認同感最強,其次是其他國族文化身份,例如亞洲人、世界公民、中華民族、中國人等等。在所有身份選項中,香港居民對“中華人民共和國公民”的認同感最弱,這在18-29 年齡組中尤為明顯 (HKUPOP, 2017)。

有學者指出“中國公⺠”⼀直是個複雜多變的概念。沈旭輝 (2007) 認為中國⺠族主義是複雜⽽多元,⽽且往往是由下⽽上得到⼤陸公⺠⽀持。Zhao (2006) 指出⾃清朝以來,及⾄今天的中華⼈⺠共和國憲法,“中國⼈”這概念在官⽅定義中⼀直指涉多⺠族 (多元⼀體)。

Hong Kong became a colony of the British Empire after Qing Empire ceded Hong Kong Island in 1842, and its sovereignty was handed over from Britain to People’s Republic of China (PRC) in 1997. For more than a hundred years in this British colony, people from mainland China and other parts of the world resided in Hong Kong, and Hong Kong people do not comprise of one particular ethnicity or nationality. After the 1997 handover, the proportion of ethnic Chinese has obviously increased, according to Hong Kong's 2016 census, 92% of its population is ethnically Chinese, with 31% were born in Mainland China, Taiwan or Macau. Among the 0.58 million non-Chinese, the largest ethnic groups in Hong Kong were Filipinos, Indonesians and Whites, constituting 31.5%, 26.2% and 10.0% of the non-Chinese population respectively, other south Asians include Indian, Pakistani, and Nepalese (HKSAR, 2017).

The Chinese term “xianggangren” has been used for years in Chinese contexts, but the English term “Hongkonger” has just recently been officially added to the Oxford English Dictionary in March 2014 (South China Morning Post, 2014). The term “Hongkonger” itself has no legal definition by the Hong Kong Government. More precise terms such as Hong Kong Permanent Resident and Hong Kong Resident are used in legal contexts, in which there are different types of Hong Kong residency, such as: i) non-permanent Hong Kong residents who are people holding Hong Kong Identity Cards but they have no right of abode, ii) permanent Hong Kong residents are those holding Hong Kong Permanent Identity Cards and having the right of abode, iii) most residents hold permanent Hong Kong Residents Identity Cards and Chinese passports, iv) but there are also permanent Hong Kong residents who do hold Chinese passport (HKSAR, 2019).

More than two decades after the 1997 handover, the subjective ethno-national identity of Hongkongers is still an unsettled issue. A 2017 survey showed that citizens continue to feel the strongest when identified as “Hongkongers”, then followed by a number of ethno-cultural identities, such as Asian, global citizens, Chinese, etc. The feeling of being “citizens of the PRC” is the weakest among all identity options, and this was particularly obvious in the 18-29 age group (HKUPOP, 2017).

Some scholars see that “Chinese” has always been a complex concept. Shen (2007) sees that Chinese nationalism is complicated and diverse, and it is often bottom-up, supported by mainland citizens. Zhao (2006) sees that the term Chinese has denoted multi-ethnicities and multi-nationalities since the Qing dynasty (diversity in unity, “duoyuanyiti).

作者/Author: Chitat Chan & Chris Lau

新聞及政府資訊 News&Government Information

吳世寧. (2017, 2017-06-29, January 01). 【回歸20年】一個女生三個國籍:香港沒有讓人活得有尊嚴的自由. 香港01.
一名女生有三個國籍,分別是香港,英國及加拿大,曾到不同地方留學。她描述出在不同地方的經歷和對於在不同地方生活的看法。對比之下,她認為很多人定義香港是多元的原因較膚淺,所謂的多元其實只是表面。她不喜歡香港的整個氛圍,但卻不代表她對不認同這身份,而且香港亦有她需要的事物,同時因為她有多重國籍,可以隨時走訪不同地方,讓她亦能親身參與及看到香港的改變。
引文
張曦、陳雪玲. (2007, 2007-07-16, January 01). 中國人?香港人?身份認同十年之變. 文匯報.
筆者們透過指出香港大學心理學系的一則研究中顯示在十年中,本港青年人認同自己屬於「中國人,其次才是香港人」雙重身份的人數增加,而只認同自己是「香港人」單一身份的則大幅下降,說明香港青少年對國家認同感日漸增強 。同時又引述兩名同是土生土長,但家庭背景不同的的同學對於身份的看法,隨後帶出一連串對於探索身份背後要思考的問題。
引文
環球網. (2019, 2019-08-21, January 01). 忘祖籍抛民族身份,乱港头目成外部势力“带路党.” 環球網.
筆者形容香港有些人「忘祖籍拋民族身份」,這包括香港歌手,前政府官員等等;因為他們一直鼓勵市民上街反對中央政府。
引文
遊方女. (2017, 2017-04-22, January 01). 出了亞洲,才知道香港人身處夾縫. 香港01.
筆者透過文章記錄了自己在墨爾本做交流生的半年時自我介紹「我來自香港。」的反思。
引文
陳凱文. (2019). 無「香港籍」, 亦無「香港公民」.
就著外國媒體稱一名英國駐香港總領事館僱員鄭文傑其為「香港籍」僱員,以及中國外交部發言人則稱其為「香港公民」的說法,筆者透過解釋「籍」的中文字義及說明「公民」在法律層面的規定,指出用此兩說法均不準確。
引文
評論編輯室. (2018, 2018-06-21, December 23). 勿再糾纏中國人VS香港人 輕視中國公民身分才是問題. 香港01.
筆者指出於香港大學民意研究計劃於2018年發表的「香港市民身分認同調查結果」中,最值得留意的不是香港人身分認同指數創新高,而是中華人民共和國國民身分的認同感偏低,甚至更次於「亞洲人」和「中華民族」,藉此討論何以於法理上同是中華人民共和國國民的香港人不認同及不重視這身份。
引文
香港01. (2018, January 01). 【香港公民.倡議(一)】誰是「香港人」?永久性居民就是嗎? 香港01.
筆者追溯至英殖時期,說明香港「永久居民」一詞的由來,從權利層面分辨「香港居民」及「香港公民」,旨在填補現時香港政治社會制度的漏洞,讓人們可以清楚自己的權利及義務。
引文
穆家駿. (2018, 2018-06-06, January 01). 既是「香港人」 也是「中國人」. 文匯報.
筆者形容中國和香港是「一家人」;這可證於香港移民史,兩地關口開啟,天災及經濟低迷時的互助。
引文
Luisa Tam. (2019, January 01). How the Hong Kong identity is being warped by social media, as protests rage. SCMP.
SCMP Columnist mentioned that HK people fear of losing their HK identity, but she said HK people is indeed having multiple identities, and is a true survivor, so that they can adapt and adjust to challenge. She is concerned about HK people's view is gradually shaped by social media that they have to fight back all the time to strive for other's acceptance and what they already have inside.
引文
South China Morning Post, . (2014, 2014-03-18, January 01). Word power: Dictionary helps Hongkongers define their identity. South China Morning Post.
The description of “Hongkonger” and “Hongkongese” has been added to the Oxford English Dictionary in its latest quarterly update, while “Hong Kong Chinese” has been included as a new sub-entry. Different stakeholders express view about it.
引文
HKSAR. (2017). Hong Kong 2016 Population By-census - Main Results.
The 2016 population by-census released by the Census and Statistics Department of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.
引文
HKSAR. (2019). Meanings of right of abode and other terms.
This webpage captured the release from the HKSAR government for explaining the meanings of the terms related to the right of abode in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) – ‘right of abode’, ‘right to land’, ‘Chinese citizen’, ‘settled’ and ‘ordinary residence’.
引文
Frances Hui. (2019, 2019-06-04, December 23). I am from Hong Kong, not China. PRI.
Frances Hui, a senior at Emerson College, faces much criticism at college due to her public speaking towards identity,"I am from Hong Kong, not China." and she also recognized that there is absence of voice, no matter from Taiwanese, Hongkongers or other Chinese minority groups, to advocate Hong Kong culture. Meanwhile, she is proud of her identity and would insist to tell people where her home is.
引文
HKUPOP. (2017). HKU POP releases latest survey on Hong Kong people’s ethnic identity.
This document captured the survey done by the Public Opinion Programme of the University of Hong Kong regarding ethnic identities, including "Hongkongers", Asians", "global citizens", "Members of the Chinese race", "Chinese", and "citizens of PRC".
引文

影視作品 Movie and TV Series

RTHK  、 香港電台. (2016). 18廿二大放送: 我係香港人.
四位年輕人來自不同背景: 有香港土生土長的 DSE 畢業生Hermon; 希望高中畢業後到內地升學﹑貢獻國家的中學生文盛;來港修讀碩士一年多的內地生Cheryl;以及在美國留學、回港度暑假的大二學生Natasha。文化背景迥異的四人,對作為香港人的身份各有想法,對作為中國人的認同更是大相逕庭。
引文

學術文章 Academic Papers

Bhattacharya, A. (2005). Chinese nationalism contested: The rise of Hong Kong identity. Issues & Studies, 41(2), 37–74.
This study looks into how a Hong Kong identity has emerged & contests the notion of Chinese nationalism today.
引文
Veg, S. (2017). The rise of localism and civic identity in post-handover Hong Kong: Questioning the Chinese Nation-state. China Quarterly, 230, 323–347.
The present study takes a two-dimensional approach to study these discourses, such as, 'how new is “localism” with respect to the more traditional “Hong Kong identity” that appeared in the 1970s?', by examining not only their framework of identification (local versus pan-Chinese) but also their mode of identification (ethno-cultural versus civic) through studying three case, the June Fourth vigil, the 2012 anti-National Education protest and the 2014 Umbrella movement.
引文
Xia, Y. (2016). Contesting Citizenship in Post-Handover Hong Kong. Journal of Chinese Political Science, 21(4), 485–500.
This study probes into a case of citizenship transition that takes place in Hong Kong, a former British colony and present the Special Administrative Region of China.
引文
Zhao, G. (2006). Reinventing China: Imperial Qing ideology and the rise of modern Chinese national identity in the early twentieth century. Modern China, 32(1), 3–30.
This article uses both Manchu and Han sources to interrogate the relationship between Qing and China.
引文

書籍 Books

呂大樂. (2007). 四代香港人.
作者將香港人按出生年份分為四代的人。因為每一代人都生長在不同的年代,在不同的環境下,人生的經歷自然不同,所以擁有着不同的思維想法。他們的想法、行為、態度,都一一在書中記錄下,表達着香港人經過時代的變遷,對社會價值觀的改變。
引文
呂大樂等人. (2011). 香港‧生活‧文化. 牛津大學出版社(中國)有限公司.
書共分為四部份。第一部份的四篇文章以不同的介入點來探討後九七的身份認同問題。第二部份是城市社會運動。第三部份以公民社會與公共領域為主題,探討兩者之間的密切關係。第四部份所觸及的課題,從不同層次、領域去探討不同形式與性質的權力關係。
引文
香港故事 、  Hong Kong Stories, . (2016). Hong Kong Stories 係.香港人 係.香港故事.
這書訪問了不同的香港人,有土生土長的,有少數族裔,有海外回流的;有學生有教授有小販有傳道人有社工有車長有機師有自由工作者有藝術家有家庭主婦有演員有醫生有作者有消防員等等等等。每個人的故事、經歷都不同,將香港的多元記錄下來。
引文

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