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2019.05.03

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2020.05.08

社會工作的雙焦點取向 The dual focus orientation in Social Work


簡介 Introduction

縱觀整個社會工作歷史,個人社會功能和社會改革一向是其主要標誌(Dulmus&Sowers,2012)。這種雙焦點使命是社會工作中的一個長期方向(Weick,1999),其中「人在情境」(Person-in-Environment; PIE)導向是其知識基礎的核心元素(Cornell,2006)。PIE在社會工作中被廣泛接受,因為它提供了一個框架,以探索及介入複雜的問題網絡。“人類行為與社會環境” (Human Behavior and Social Environment ;HBSE) 學科是社會工作培訓中一個倡導雙焦點導向的主要平台,採用多角度的PIE框架。這雙焦點取向使社會工作有別於其他從事社會介入的學科,其他學科側重恢復個人社會功能(例如諮詢,臨床心理學,精神病學),或側重改革社會(例如社會行動主義,社會革命)。換句話說,正因社會工作者這種獨特的“變革推動者”角色,使其有別於其他醫療保健專業。儘管這種雙焦點取向被認為是社會工作的獨特理論基礎,它在操作層面上並未有紮實的結構;在香港,乃至全球也存在著這個問題。舉例來說,社會工作課程中有多種HBSE模式,因此所謂的HBSE的內容實際上並未在社會工作中得到扎實的共識。一項於2005年在美國進行的研究指出,從HBSE教科書及課程大綱顯示,社會工作教育者對HBSE的架構缺乏共識(Taylor,Austin & Mulroy,2005; Taylor,Mulroy &Austin,2005)。在20所有HBSE課程的學校中,其中35%(9)的大鋼範圍集中生命週期,19%(5)強調系統,19%(5)主要介紹理論。在缺乏適當的專業知識和方法下,使社會工作實踐(微觀和宏觀)中的雙焦點取向的結構形成分歧,並且這種分歧迫使人們過早及不必要地收窄研究和實踐的焦點。坊間有不少關於人類發展﹑行為和社會環境之間關係的爭論(Bloom&Klein,1997)。有批評指出,在社會工作的知識教育中,尤其在實踐方面,過於著重個人(Mulroy&Austin,2005)、著重環境(Han,2010)、或沒有充分考慮人與環境之間的互動(Kondrat,2002)。 Vodde和Gallant(2002)認為,雙焦點使命(個人和環境)使社會工作實踐產生結構性分歧(微觀和宏觀),這種分歧迫使從業者在研究和實踐中過早且不必要地收窄了關注範圍。

Throughout its history, individuals’ social functioning and social change have been the fundamental hallmarks of social work (Dulmus & Sowers, 2012). This dual-focus mission is a long-standing orientation in social work (Weick, 1999), in which person-in-environment (PIE) orientation serves as core components of its knowledge base (Cornell, 2006). This PIE orientation is almost universally accepted in social work, as it provides a framework for exploring and intervening in such networks in their complexity. The subject Human Behavior and Social Environment in social work training is a major platform to advocate such a dual-focus orientation, which in fact present a multidimensional PIE framework. This dual-focus-logical orientation is important in making social work different from other intervention-oriented disciplines, which either focus on social functioning (e.g., counselling, clinical psychology, psychiatry) or social change (e.g., social activism, social revolution). In other words, it is this unique “change agent” role that differentiates social workers from other healthcare professionals. Although this dual focus orientation has been perceived as a unique theoretical foundation of social work, it has not established a stable structure at an operational level. This is the case in Hong Kong, as well as the case in the global context. For example, what is considered “HBSE” is not really a universal consensus in the social work field. There are diverse models of HBSE in the social work curriculum. A 2005 study in the USA indicated that HBSE textbooks and course outlines revealed the lack of agreement among social work educators about what constitutes HBSE (Taylor, Austin, & Mulroy, 2005; Taylor, Mulroy, & Austin, 2005). Of the 20 schools having a foundation HBSE course, 35% (9) focused on the life cycle, 19% (5) emphasized systems, and another 19% (5) presented primarily theories. The lack of proper expertise and method has made this dual focus orientation becomes a bifurcated structure of social work practice (micro and macro), and this split forces a premature and unnecessarily narrow focus in study and practice. There are considerable debate about the relationship between human development, behavior, and the social environment (Bloom & Klein, 1997). There are criticisms noting that the social work knowledge education, in actual practice, is too individually focused (Mulroy & Austin, 2005), too environmentally focused (Han, 2010), or not attending adequately to the nature of transactions between the person and the environment (Kondrat, 2002). Vodde and Gallant (2002) sees that the dual-focus mission (personal and environmental) has become a bifurcated structure of social work practice (micro and macro), and this split forces a premature and unnecessarily narrow focus in study and practice.

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